The AD Plugin uses information in Sites in your Active Directory Configuration to get a list of Domain Controllers to use for LDAP and Kerberos connections. Sites are a method of configuring Active Directory based on a physical or network based location. Clients connecting to Active Directory use this information to determine which domain controllers are nearby and therefore likely to respond the fastest. Plus if you have Domain Controllers in remote or distant locations, without using Sites, you are pushing traffic over a WAN unnecessarily.
This is one of the steps you’ll see when joining a machine to AD. Locating Domain Controllers… or something like that.
First it uses DNS to lookup SVR records to locate ANY domain controller. You can do the same using the dig command:
dig any _kerberos._tcp.yourdomain.yourforest.com
This will give you a list of domain controllers to choose from. Once you have one of your domain controllers to talk to, you can read the same information that the AD Plugin does to figure out your Site by querying AD with ldapsearch and your subnet:
ldapsearch -x -h "somedomaincontroller.yourforest.com" -b "CN=Subnets,CN=Sites,CN=Configuration,dc=yourforest,dc=com" -D "firstname.lastname@example.org" -W "(cn=10.31.0.0/16)" siteObject
From this you will get your Site, which you can then use with ldapsearch again to get a list of domain controllers for your site:
ldapsearch -x -h "somedomaincontroller.yourforest.com" -b "CN=SERVERS,CN=YOURSITENAME,CN=Sites,CN=Configuration,dc=yourforest,dc=com" -D "email@example.com" -W dNSHostName | grep dNSHostName
Pretty cool. Takes some more of the mystery out of the AD plugin.
Notes: Enter each command as a single line. Substitute ‘yourdomain’ with your own domain and ‘yourforest’ with your own forest and ‘username’ with a your username for your domain and ‘10.31.0.0/16’ with your own subnet and ‘YOURSITENAME’ with the site name you found in the previous step. Also, using ldapsearch in this way does a simple BIND authentication which sends your password in CLEAR TEXT. Change your password after using this command if you are in a secure environment.
Update: I was using this method recently and realized I was getting domain controllers that were in my site, but weren’t hosting my specific domain. If you want to get just the servers hosting your domain, you need to filter the ldapsearch like so, but you won’t get the fully qualified dNSHostName:
ldapsearch -x -h "somedomaincontroller.yourforest.com" -b "CN=SERVERS,CN=YOURSITENAME,CN=Sites,CN=Configuration,dc=yourforest,dc=com" -D "firstname.lastname@example.org" -W msDS-HasDomainNCs="DC=subdomain,DC=forest,DC=com" dn | grep dn: